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ACS-Hach Programs Learn about financial support for future and current high school chemistry teachers. Commemorative Booklet PDF. Recent archaeological evidence reveals early Virginia, which included both the Roanoke and Jamestown colonies, as the birthplace of the American chemical enterprise.

Chemical processes first applied experimentally at Roanoke were re-introduced at Jamestown twenty years later. Collectively, the chemical investigations which began in Virginia, which were impelled by the demands of trade, constituted the beginning of industrial production for domestic and foreign consumption.

ACS deated the birth of the American chemical enterprise at Jamestown as a National Historic Chemical Landmark on October 10,part of the celebration of the th anniversary of the founding of Jamestown. The American chemical enterprise was characterized by the search for and application of native resources to European metallurgy, pharmacology, and perfumery.

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Following the closure of Jamestown as Virginia's capital inthese chemical activities moved to Williamsburg, the new capital, where they continued and proliferated. By then, several other English settlements from the modern Carolinas to Maine had been established. As these English colonies proliferated along the Atlantic seaboard during the 17th century following Jamestown, a similar pattern of application of European technologies to indigenous raw materials appeared.

Based on local resources, these settlements established their own chemical works and traded with sister colonies for American-manufactured chemical products. The early Virginia settlement at Jamestown, however, represents the first appearance of European chemical processes as applied to local resources at a permanent colony. It is difficult to separate the history of Jamestown from the myths obscuring the first successful English settlement in the Americas.

The most enduring story surrounds Pocahontas saving the life of Captain John Smith. Popular history also has it that a few decades before Jamestown, in what is now North Carolina, the fledgling Roanoke colony, an English settlement of over men, women, and children, disappeared, a mystery that remains unsolved. Scholarship supported many of these myths, the most important of which held the settlers in both Roanoke and Jamestown underestimated the new environment. Further, the conventional view maintained that ill-prepared colonists sailed to America to undertake a reckless and ultimately failed search for gold or other riches.

Indeed, s from early Jamestown note that most of the colony had gone crazy with its "gilded refiners" and their "golden promises. A new narrative has emerged to challenge these assumptions. The evidence comes from archaeological excavations at both Fort Raleigh National Historic Site, location of a fort built by Roanoke colonists, and Jamestown National Historic Site and Historic Jamestowne, the two adjacent modern properties occupying ground along the James River in Virginia.

These properties mark the location of the James Fort ofthe first permanent settlement of English-speaking people in North America. Combined with historical scholarship, archaeological discoveries reveal the intersection of many interests, including English ambitions to create chemical industries involving glass and metals and a Native American trading empire within which copper was the most valued metal, imported to Virginia from the Great Lakes.

Further, the English ambitions ushered in another European presence, Germans and Poles who served as glassblowers, miners, apothecaries, and other chemical practitioners. What is more, new archaeological evidence, coupled with a re-examination of the historical record, points to early Virginia as the birthplace of the American chemical enterprise. Recent archaeological investigations at Jamestown in particular have revealed the presence of chemical tools and apparatus to detect, identify, and process natural resources for various commercial purposes.

In early Virginia—which in stretched from Spanish Florida to modern Canada—settlers participated in carefully deed schemes to gather and export a host of resources, especially those needed to further industries in England. The English search for and exploitation of native resources for metallurgy, pharmacology, perfumery, and other applications led to the establishment of American chemical practices which eventually transformed into modern industries.

Jamestown built upon the exploratory goals of the Roanoke ventures involving natural resources to assist established commercial centers in England. Experimentation led to the first chemical industry in North America, glass production, and later metal manufacturing. Until recently, archaeologically-recovered artifacts of chemical processes have received relatively little attention from historians. The archaeological remains of Elizabethan chemistry, particularly, are not common; those that have been found are frequently nondescript.

These artifacts include dull glass or ceramic fragments of vessels that wore out and were discarded, making it difficult for archaeologists to date by type or function. Jamestown and Roanoke have yielded chemical artifacts, along with mining sites in the Canadian Arctic established by Martin Frobisher, who made three voyages to the New World in the late 16th century in search of the fabled Northwest Passage.

At most of these European archaeological sites, tools of distillation and fire assay testing of metals for commercial viability have been found. Evidence of distillation is not surprising, as alcohol-rich substances were produced for a variety of purposes, such as medicines and perfumes. Recent archaeological analysis at European sites in North America in recent years has focused on the material remains of fire assay, specifically the humble crucible and other ceramic vessels.

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We now know that most European crucibles and other ceramics were German-made to a very precise tolerance in order to withstand high heat, remain chemically inert, and serve dependably for repetitive processes under like conditions. Colonists brought with them the best available apparatus. At Jamestown, the evidence of crucibles and residues of assay have highlighted the evidence for non-ferrous metallurgy c. Taken as a whole, the archaeological evidence at Jamestown and Roanoke speaks to a colonial leadership adept at mathematical learning, including astronomy and surveying, with practical skills in mining, metallurgy, and medicinal arts to serve the needs of commercial centers in England, from glass production to metal manufacturing.

The planning for chemical investigation and exploitation of natural resources at Roanoke and Jamestown had an precursor in the Martin Frobisher voyages to the Canadian Arctic known as Meta Incognita to explore the Northwest Passage. Frobisher, one of Queen Elizabeth's "sea dogs" who participated in the fight against the Armada, had a career in state-sponsored piracy and led three expeditions between to the vicinity of Baffin Island, all of which attracted the interest and involvement of state leaders, the final voyage holding the record of the largest-scale Arctic expedition to date.

Potentially lucrative ores, spotted on the first voyage, were believed to contain gold or silver. Probably marcasite or iron pyrite, the ores were mined during Frobisher's second and third voyages, and taken to Bristol. Frobisher's voyages were characterized by astute early scientific planning, but ended in mining fraud with false assays. The ores proved worthless, despite early claims to the contrary.

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Nevertheless, on Kodlunarn Island, although the ceramics have not been well analyzed, identified structures include smithies with attendant charcoal-stained deposits and remains of crucibles, slag, coal, and clay. An assay office has been identified, and contains, in addition to the aforementioned substances, firebrick and rooftiles, plus a variety of crucibles.

The room's lack of smithing remains points to assay work. The Frobisher voyages must be viewed within the context of the harnessing of early chemical and metallurgical expertise in strategic planning for commercial exploitation. In a pattern that would dominate English New World exploration, and had characterized Spanish New World colonization sinceGerman mining experts managed or supervised assay work, and in the English cases, German miners performed the labor. Frobisher's chemical preparations included medicine. Medical practices on Frobisher's voyages, with their emphasis on chemical drugs, introduced Paracelsian practices into the New World.

Given the increasing acceptance of chemical compounds as remedies for illness, it is not surprising that apothecary supplies carried on Frobisher's ships included resins such as turpentine, myrrh, and mastic, alum a stypticand copperas or green vitriol, an antiseptic. Excitement about the possibilities of establishing permanent English colonies in North America impelled Sir Walter Ralegh as he spelled his surname to acquire a patent for colonization and attempt, fromto establish a permanent colony in the section of Virginia now known as North Carolina.

Multiple attempts to establish a permanent colony failed, the last chapter occupied by the "Lost Colony," a village whose inhabitants disappeared. On the first voyage, Ralegh employed a foremost natural philosopher to reconnoiter, Thomas Hariot, whose report influenced further investment and planning for Jamestown. We can infer from Hariot's work that certain instruments were used to sample or assay local materials, but of all substances and potential raw materials Hariot describes, copper takes on particular importance: he records the whereabouts of copper and silver from Native Americans.

He records that he saw pieces of copper "hanging in the ears of a werowance or chief lord. Within the Indian system of exchange, the werowance imported copper through a trade network extending to Lake Superior, but with English copper, the head chief controlled the trade, distributing it to minor chiefs. The Ralegh voyages landed colonists in multiple locations, most of which have not been located archaeologically. Recovered artifacts include fire-blackened bricks with a concavity, probably part of a furnace used by Gans, and crucibles and pharmaceutical pots.

Gans, born in Prague, came to England in and advised government leaders about developing a British-based mineral industry. Astoundingly, part of the original laboratory floor survives.

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Excavated inthe floor produced about 60 diagnostic artifacts representative of chemical processes. Finds include glass sherds from chemical glassware, the remains of Indian pottery used in distilling, and other fragments from stoneware jugs and crucibles. A recovered chunk of antimony suggests assaying, as well as the high interest among Paracelsians for its putative pharmaceutical properties. Some sherds contain copper residue, including copper oxide which may have resulted from smelting local native copper.

The archaeological evidence is conclusive about the presence of chemical investigation, and the interest in copper attests to English notice of the metal's commercial potential. The Roanoke voyages to Virginia, although they failed to establish a permanent English presence, furnished sufficient information about the tidewater region of modern North Carolina and Virginia to inform planning for the next round of attempted colonization beginning at Jamestown in The archaeological record at Jamestown—similarly to the evidence from the Frobisher voyages and Roanoke—speaks to many chemical practitioners of the era, including the apothecary, barber surgeon, physician, alchemist or metallurgist, and other metal-related trades such as refiners, goldsmiths, and blacksmiths.

Also present, based on artifacts, were artisans skilled in glass manufacture. Artifacts of the apothecary attest to vigorous experimentation with Virginia flora, and Jamestown medical practices stemmed from Paracelsians who advocated chemical drugs. One such physician, Johannes Fleischer, a German, earned a medical degree at the University of Basel the year the Jamestown colonists departed England. Numerous drug jars, of Dutch or English origin, relate to the work of the apothecaries. These men, who were trained through apprenticeship, belonged to the elite both in Europe and in Virginia.

Further, a medical tool for relieving constipation due to impacted fecal matter, a spatula mundani, has been recovered. This instrument is known to have been provided in a surgeon's chest prepared by John Woodall, a Paracelsian physician who later became surgeon-general to the East India Company. Woodall's medicines and treatments make extensive reference to the tria prima of Paracelsus: salt, mercury, and sulfur.

Woodall's medical treatments and medicines may also be reflected in other early Jamestown finds, a cranium bearing the mark of a trepanning tool the cranial piece having been removed during a postmortem examinationand a piece of sulfur. The evidence of perfumery at Jamestown links with medical and apothecary pursuits. Perfumer Robert Alberton produced scented preparations. An earthenware fuming pot has been discovered which might have used a burning substance—obtained from a perfumer—to fumigate for medical purpose.

In fact, the advancement of perfumery using New World resources was a priority in an exploratory voyage to the Chesapeake Bay before the founding of Jamestown. Samuel Mace's voyage to Virginia aimed to search for the Lost Colonists of Roanoke and search for plants, seeds, and bark of flora identified during a voyage as useful for perfumery and apothecary.

English recruitment of foreign specialists and artisans was evident at Jamestown, as it had been at Roanoke. The first glass factory—which employed Germans and Poles—had been established in the New World at Jamestown in Archaeological investigations have found the locations of glass furnaces which attest to the technology utilized. Colonists used silica, lime, and soda, or potash substituted for soda, materials known at the time as "salts.

Old glass, or cullet, fragments of which are abundant at Jamestown, were also an ingredient. Jamestown's metallurgy, however, reveals the most tantalizing evidence of early chemical practice. A sample of the dirt was sent to England with Captain Christopher Newport in June of to be analyzed by London's assayers, but disappointingly Beale's precious dirt lacked any of gold.

During testing "all turned to vapor. Exploring for and testing possible gold ores in Virginia had an all too familiar outcome that rings throughout the records of Jamestown's first two years. s by men such as Cope frequently speak of gold mines, but none of the alleged sources are known to have yielded their treasures.

As a result of such records modern historians have tended to form biased views of Jamestown and the relative historiography of the colonizing effort commonly refers to lazy and unproductive settlers who carried out little more in Virginia than a "reckless search for gold. Financial gain was, of course, the primary goal of the Virginia Company of London, the corporate organization responsible for the settlement of Jamestown.

It was established in as a t-stock company. Along with a desire to find a Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean for trading purposes, the company sponsors hoped to profit by exploiting the natural resources of Virginia. Although they expected to find precious metals such as gold and silver, recent historical and archaeological scholarship are revealing how the Virginia Company equally sought to discover sources of more utilitarian materials, such as ores required at home for the production of brass.

The search for metals, in fact, was a priority at Jamestown. Colonists intended to establish a trading center, and they were "not permitted to manure or till any ground" but instead were required to invest labor in profitable activities. In fact, letters patent to the colony leaders specified "to dig mine and search for all manner of mines of gold silver and copper. The archaeological excavations of James Fort, carried out by the Jamestown Rediscovery Project, have recovered a wealth of artifacts related to the colony's metallurgical endeavors.

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Crucibles, cupels, scorifiers, alembics, slag, and melted metal indicate that a host of metals and minerals were processed, refined or tested at Jamestown during the colony's earliest years. Of Jamestown's metalworking remains, evidence for copper-based metallurgy is particularly strong. Numerous triangular and beaker shaped crucibles have been excavated, and several examples contain copper residue. Further indications of copper-related activities at Jamestown come in the form of melted copper masses, including one uniquely shaped piece that fits perfectly into the bottom of a triangular Hessian crucible.

The connection between these artifacts, along with the crucibles containing interior copper residue, exemplifies how working or testing copper took place at Jamestown, and consequently, how metallurgical activities other than those strictly associated with the search for gold occurred within the settlement. Because clear documentation of such endeavors is not evident within the s of the early Virginia settlement, the discovery and investigation of these finds provides new insight into the pursuits of the colony and the motives of the Virginia Company investors.

Additional artifacts recovered from James Fort that offer details of Jamestown's non-ferrous metallurgy include over 8, pieces of sheet copper. Taking the form of small scraps and trimmings, these finds have been interpreted as off-cuts related to the production of goods used for trade with the local Powhatan Indians. Copper was the pre-eminent commodity held and desired by the Native American populations of eastern North America during the early 17th century, and the settlers of Jamestown recorded how they frequently exchanged copper for foodstuffs.

On one occasion John Smith noted that the Virginia Indians were "covetous of copper" and "offered pieces of bread and small handfuls of beans or wheat for a hatchet or a piece of copper.

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