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Learn More. Box 36, Byblos, Lebanon. The data set used and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Very few studies report on the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome IBS and its correlates in the Middle East. This study investigated Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS prevalence in a sample of Lebanese adult individuals and associated demographic and behavioral lifestyle factors.

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This is an observational population-based study. The target population is working Lebanese adults, eighteen-to-sixty five years old. The sample was selected from a convenience population of bank employees in different geographical areas in Lebanon. The study participants completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, to collect data on their socio-demographic, behavioral and life style characteristics, and diagnostic questions following Rome III criteria to assess IBS occurrence. The difference in IBS prevalence by socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity was assessed by using the Chi-square test.

Logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used to investigate the association between risk factors and IBS. Data was collected from individuals and consisted of The bivariate analysis indicated that being younger than 30 years old, a female, an ever water pipe smoker, an ever alcohol consumer are ificantly associated with a higher prevalence of IBS.

Educational level, cigarettes smoking and physical exercise were not ificantly associated with IBS occurrence. The logistic regression adjusted odds ratio showed that females were 1. Those who ever smoked waterpipe were 1. New data on the high prevalence of IBS in an adult population in Lebanon has been reported. This is also the first study to investigate and show an association of waterpipe smoking and IBS. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to determine whether this association is causal. The online version of this article Irritable bowel syndrome IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and alterations in bowel habits [ 1 ].

The global prevalence of IBS is estimated to be IBS is not a life-threatening condition, yet people with IBS have a reduced quality of life that may affect their educational, social and occupational achievements [ 2 ]. The economic burden of IBS is substantial on the healthcare system too. The indirect costs in terms of absenteeism, workdays lost, disability will double the monetary figure estimated as direct costs [ 3 ]. Thus, the use of different diagnostic criteria will affect the reported IBS prevalence worldwide.

The lowest reported rates were in Southeast Asia 7. The prevalence of IBS varies by socio-demographic factors, gender and age [ 78 ]. In developed countries, women are times more likely to develop IBS compared to men [ 79 ]. IBS is more prevalent among adolescents and declines with age [ 10 ]. The odds of having IBS are higher among those younger than 50 years compared to those older than 50 years of age [ 11 — 13 ]. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption [ 14 — 16 ] and physical activity [ 1718 ] have also been linked to IBS.

Epidemiologic studies assessing the prevalence of IBS and its correlates are lacking in the developing world and specifically in African and Middle Eastern countries, particularly in Lebanon. Lebanon is a Middle Eastern middle-income country with a population of about four million that experienced a protracted civil war for almost two decades from to Thus, the current study aims to 1 estimate the prevalence of IBS in a Lebanese population based on a sample of employed adults and to 2 assess the behavioral risk factors, including smoking, waterpipe, alcohol use and physical inactivity associated with the disease.

This is an observational, population-based study. The target population is Lebanese adults, eighteen-to-sixty five years old. The sample was selected from a convenience population of bank employees in Lebanon. The choice of bank employees was based on the rationale that they represent a ificant percent of the private working force.

Bank employees also provide a sufficient wide age range of a cohort of working adults in Lebanon. All major banks in Beirut were contacted initially by e-mail to request the administration approval to conduct the survey among their employees in the main headquarters in the city of Beirut, as well as branches in other cities. The selected banks were representative of the Lebanese banking sector, as they constituted the major banks in the country.

The data collection extended from January to April The employees were informed about the survey by the administration and asked for voluntary participation in the study. The questionnaires were distributed and collected by the study team during working hours Additional file 1. The consenting participants were asked to return the filled questionnaire in a sealed envelope and deposited in an ased box for confidentiality.

A screening question was used to exclude the non-eligible participants. Are you currently taking medication for peptic ulcer disease?. Any respondent who responded yes to any of these two questions was not eligible to participate in the study. All eligible employees in the selected banks completed a fifteen minutes anonymous self-administered questionnaire.

The questionnaire included a consent form on its coverall participants completing the questionnaire were considered to be indirectly providing their informed consent. IBS is defined as recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort in the last three months for at least 3 days per month, associated with at least two of the following: relief after defecation; changes in bowel movement frequency, and occurrence of symptoms associated with changes in stool form [ 20 ]. The questionnaire collected data on socio-economic, demographic and behavioral characteristics sex, age, education and regional distributionsmoking patterns cigarettes, waterpipe, cigars and pipealcohol consumption physical activity and food intolerance.

The association between IBS and socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and food intolerance was assessed by Chi-square. Logistic regression was used to predict the independent association of demographic factors, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on the odds of having IBS.

A p -value less than 0. The total of questionnaires collected was but some had to be discarded due to incomplete information on IBS and other characteristics. The final sample size was individuals and consisted of The mean age among the females was The majority of the sample had a university degree It varied by socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.

The prevalence of IBS was higher among females Age was negatively related to IBS, study participants older than 30 years reported less IBS than those younger than 30 years of age. No ificant difference was observed with respect to the educational level of the respondents, Table 2. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking in the total sample was The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was No sex or educational level differential was noted among waterpipe smokers.

The prevalence of reported current alcohol consumption was The prevalence of physical activity was The respondents were also asked to report if they experience any food intolerance. Table 3 describes the adjusted odds ratio of IBS correlates and their confidence intervals.

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The logistic regression showed that the odds of having IBS are 1. A younger age of less than 30 years old, was associated with a higher odds of IBS occurrence 1. Those who ever smoked water pipe were 1.

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Physical exercise and cigarette smoking were not ificantly associated with having IBS. This study assessed the prevalence of IBS among a sample of Lebanese employees as well as major lifestyle associations. The prevalence of However the occurrence of IBS was much higher than what has been reported in the West [ 2 ].

The reported sex and age differential among those with IBS was consistent with reported in the literature [ 78 ]. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the higher prevalence of IBS in females, i. The association of IBS with educational level is inconsistent in the reported literature, where some studies show a higher prevalence of IBS among educated compared to less educated [ 25 — 27 ]. Gwee et al. Yet, lower education was associated with a higher IBS prevalence in one study [ 29 ]. There was minimal variability in the educational level of the participants in our study; therefore such a statistical association could not be analyzed adequately.

Individuals who consumed alcohol in our study were twice as likely to suffer from IBS compared to those who did not. The association between alcohol consumption and IBS has been inconsistent in the literature, some studies report no effect [ 1415 ], while others show that alcohol consumption was associated with a higher IBS prevalence [ 16 ]. Certainly, more studies are required to reach a better understanding of the association between alcohol and IBS.

Our study is the first to investigate the relationship between IBS and waterpipe smoking. Waterpipe smokers were found to have ificantly more IBS compared to non-smokers. Waterpipe smoking Hookah or Shisha is becoming popular in coffee shops across the Middle East and North Africa and its prevalence in Lebanese youth years has reached Unfortunately, Lebanese women have the highest female reported water pipe smoking rate in the region [ 30 ].

This social habit seems to have spread to Western countries namely in Europe [ 3132 ]. Cigarette smoking was ificantly more prevalent in males One probable explanation for this difference in sex prevalence seen in cigarette but not waterpipe smoking can be related to the wide social acceptance of waterpipe in the Lebanese culture and the limited knowledge about its risks.

Physical activity has been shown to be an effective measure in relieving gas-related symptoms, and is currently recommended for people who suffer from abdominal bloating as it improves impaired gas clearance related to altered small bowel activity [ 33 ]. Although Costanian et al. The ificant relationship observed in our study of IBS in patient reporting food intolerance, is well established and in agreement with what has been reported in the literature.

However, the respondents were not asked what type of food induces the food intolerance, which is a study limitation. There are several limitations that should be noted in this study. The data was collected through self-administered questionnaires that may lead to a higher percentage of incomplete data than interview surveys. Selection bias is also possible as we limited the study population to bank employees that might already have a better socio-economic status and educational level compared to the general Lebanese population.

Moreover, other factors known to be associated with IBS were not addressed, such as depression and anxiety. In addition, the amount of tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and water pipe use was not quantified. Given the impact of IBS on the quality of life of those afflicted with the disease, a better understanding of the prevalence and associated socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors among the Lebanese is needed.

This is one of the first studies to estimate the prevalence of IBS and its association with lifestyle risk factors physical activity, waterpipe smoking and alcohol consumption in an adult subset of the Lebanese population. With respect to waterpipe smoking and its association with IBS, a longitudinal cohort study, controlling for major confounders such a stress is warranted to establish causality of this observed correlation.

Future studies would open the door towards an improved understanding of IBS complex GI pathology, and allow a healthier management geared towards the psychological and lifestyle factors related to IBS. We would like to acknowledge the tremendous help in data collection of Ghassan Daye and Ahmad Naja. Our gratitude is also extended to all the bank employees who participated in the study. Additional file 1: K, docx Bloating Questionnaire. DOCX 98 kb. RC and MD contributed to the study conception and de; RC, EH, MM, NS, MD contributed to data collection, data analysis and interpretation and writing of the article; MD performed all the statistical analysis; All authors contributed to editing, reviewing and final approval of the article.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Ibs there sex clubs Gilbert town

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